Before the formation of kamikaze units, pilots had made deliberate crashes as a last resort when their planes had suffered severe damage and they did not want to risk being captured, or wanted to do as much damage to the enemy as possible, since they were crashing anyway. I planned to get both of us over the side in case the ship was sinking. This hull configuration was used for escort carriers and troop transports (AP) in addition to attack transports (APA). The landing craft complement for the ship included two 50-foot LCMs (Landing Craft, Mechanized) on the aft deck with a 36-foot LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel) nested in each LCM. Mindoro was taken by mid-December and the airfields converted for Army Air Force use. Loading elements of the 43rd Infantry Division at Aitape, New Guinea, were the attack transport USS DuPage (APA 41) and her sister ships [including USS Elmore (APA-42)]. All that remain of the Kamikaze plane are its wheels. He said, ‘The bomber was so low he was pulling water with his props.’”From the deck log of the DuPage, the following notation was entered: “1800—Underway in accordance with ComTransRon 14 visual dispatch. The first load of casualties consisted of three dead and 10 wounded. In case the steering controls on the bridge were disabled, the ship could be controlled from this area. © 2018-2019. Kamikaze attacks on US ships, 1945 Japanese pilots used the tactic of Kamikaze (suicidal) dive-bombing attacks on enemy warships in 1944 and 1945. With these losses, Japanese air power ceased to exist in the Philippines. “We were ordered to shoot up all floating boxes and trash with the .30-calibers as we went to and from the beach,” recalled Wells. The troops came from widely dispersed staging areas—Bougainville, New Britain, Hollandia, Aitape, Sansapor, and the farthest away, New Caledonia. By 7:37 pm damage control parties reported all fires extinguished and under control. When I came to seconds later, a sailor was kicking fire off me. On the forward deck, three racks contained eight more LCVPs. By Don SmartWarfare History NetworkAugust 21, 2015. “An army lieutenant kept hollering to get them to the beach. Lieutenant Seki had found his target. This unloading process was accomplished in 30 minutes. “My station was on the rear starboard side,” Wells said. MacArthur believed the planes were from air bases on Luzon, while Oldendorf assumed they had come from Formosa. The 172nd Infantry Regiment, landing on the extreme left beach, White 1, had the most hazardous and difficult task. The Elmore Project. He recalled:“We saw it dive until it was skimming just above the ocean surface. 10 January 1945. A heavy cruiser was damaged, and an escort carrier was sunk. He rushed to throw a shell and powder casing over the side. As night settled over the anchored transports, the Japanese resorted to still another suicide method. The crew had refueled a destroyer, transferred provisions to an LCI, and continued to care for wounded in its infirmary. As the transports got closer to Lingayen Gulf, they began to come under intense air attack. All troop cargo was transferred to the beachhead by 5 pm. They were 12,000 yards offshore opposite the small town of San Fabian. At the same time, the forces of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz had started a drive through the islands to the east that included the Solomons, Gilberts, Marshalls, and Marianas. It was important that all LCVPs hit the beach at the same time.”The last boats with assault troops were away by 8:12 am.The first assault wave hit Beach White 1 by 9:35 am, and all assault waves were on the beach by 10. By mid-1944 the Allied forces were ready to take the next step toward the Home Islands of Japan. This area had excellent beaches, plus access to the island’s central plain and a direct road to the Manila Bay region. The resulting flooding knocked out the engine, leaving the ship dead in the water. The Allies had to invade and secure the small island of Mindoro before the main invasion could go forward, because two airfields there could support Japanese attacks on the invasion fleet. This process was delayed by another LSM that brought wounded and dead from the beachhead.At 2:30 pm, the DuPage moved into the inner transport area to take on casualties and complete equipment unloading. “I had no idea what they were shooting at, then the kamikaze hit. The DuPage was in formation as guide ship for the convoy of 17 transports and some smaller vessels. would learn that one more item could be added to the list: target of the divine wind, better known as the kamikaze. Once the order came down to the Command Boat that all LCVPs were loaded and ready, we got the order to head for the beach. On the DuPage the crew continuously heard the general quarters’ call and rushed to man battle stations as enemy aircraft were sighted. Set at thousand-yard intervals, on her left was the USS Fayette, on the right the USS Cavalier, and trailing, the USS Wayne. The 250kg bomb penetrated the port side of the hangar deck and exploded in the midst of several â¦ The first kamikaze force was in fact composed of 24 volunteer pilots from Japanâs 201st Navy Air Group. Several members of the amidships unit were killed or wounded during the ensuing collision. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing During general quarters there were three damage control parties, the forward, amidships, and aft units. By 2015, the fires were under control and the carrier was able to recover aircraft. Previous kamikaze attacks were executed by relatively untrained pilots. Experiencing the Kamikaze: "Jap planes were coming at us from all directions." Moreau remembered the moment the DuPage and the kamikaze came together. A heavy cruiser was damaged, and an escort carrier was sunk. I heaved a sigh of relief.”. By the time he was attacked, the Japanese had been using kamikazestrategies for a little more than a month. Kamikaze (ç¥é¢¨, [kamiêkaze]; âdivine windâ or âspirit windâ), officially Kamikaze/ShinpÅ« Tokubetsu KÅgekitai (ç¥é¢¨ç¹å¥æ»æé, âDivine Wind Special Attack Unitâ), were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who flew suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval â¦ The wounded were transferred to hospital ships USS Mercy and USS Marigold. A total of 93 fighters and 57 bombers had been flown in conventional attacks that day, inflicting no damage on the enemy. To support the convoy, Admiral William F. Halsey committed the aircraft of his Third Fleet against installations on Luzon as far south as Clark Field. Kamikaze, which means "Divine Wind" in â¦ Japanese suicide attacks against the Hadley and the Evans were unceasing. To view the full picture, please double click on the â¦ Succeeding enemy planes try for hits. The most often seen were the Mitsubishi A6M ("Zero," ... Ohka. “I motioned to two more men and we manhandled the bomb over the side. Axell and Kase see these suicides as "individual, impromptu decisions by meâ¦ All rights reserved. The overall force commander was Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid. The wing then hit the boom cable, and the plane twisted to hit the port side of the navigation bridge just below us. The beach party returned to the ship, and the DuPage commenced to rehoist all boats.Throughout the invasion operations, the ship was undergoing continuous alerts. The invasion troops were quartered amidships on lower decks 1 and 2. My life jacket immediately caught fire, but I got it put out.”Death and destruction followed the big bomber down the side of the ship. As the hours of January 10 waned, the captain put out a call for medical assistance for his vessel. From December 13, 1944, to January 13, 1945, the Japanese succeeded in sinking 24 vessels and damaging 67 others in action off the Philippines. The defensive configuration of the guns was situated on both the bow and stern of the ship. One man, in particular, is credited with inventing the tactic of Kamikaze attacks. Japanese Kamikaze attacks - numbering close to 3,000 - against the Allies netted between thirty-five and sixty ships sunk with nearly 5,000 lives claimed. As the main force moved ahead, the attacks continued. “FLASH RED-CONTROL GREEN” or “FLASH RED-CONTROL YELLOW” kept the crew hopping to man the antiaircraft batteries. Washington, DC 20024-2126 While there may have been exceptions, they invariably targeted â¦ When I looked at my gun station, the seat I was sitting in was also blown off. About 19% of kamikaze attacks were successful. Throughout the conflict, at least 47 Allied ships were sunk by Kamikaze fighters, while a further 300 were seriously damaged. On or After Date of Successful Attack by Organized Special Attack Squadron - Vice Admiral Takijiro Ohnishi formed the first kamikaze special attack squadron in the early morning of October 20, 1944 (Inoguchi 1958, 13), but the first successful suicide attacks by special attack squadrons did not take place until October 25, â¦ These large items were transferred via ship booms to an LSM (Landing Ship, Medium) anchored alongside. James J. Fahey joined the Navy in October 1942. I had a wound in my leg, and my right arm was burned.”. The Japanese Kamikaze was their last desperate attempt to counter American military and industrial superiority. At Aitape Roads, New Guinea, the DuPage had embarked the 1st Battalion, 172nd Regiment, 43rd Division, a total of 79 officers, 997 enlisted men, and 416 tons of equipment.Captain G.M. The left wing first hit the barrel of the 20mm gun on the port side and spun the turret and gunner around at a tremendous rate. Neilson remembered one of the five was a black sailor from the officers’ mess, who later stated, “I couldn’t swim at the time, however, I learned real fast.” At 11:30 pm, a message from the destroyer USS O’Brien came in reporting that five survivors from the DuPage had been picked up. We had to wait until all landing craft from the transports were ready to head in as a part of an assault wave. Yukio Seki was born in a small village, Iyo Saijo, in Shikoku. Kamikaze Attempts Against the Hadley. The explosion killed 61 men and tore a 25-foot hole in the hull. The â¦ The impact of Kamikaze attacks decreased during the final months of the war in the Pacific, in part because of an improvement in Allied evasion tactics. These problems notwithstanding, the 43rd Division moved out and expanded its beachhead by two miles.The DuPage was anchored in the outer transport area going through cleanup routines in preparation for getting underway later in the day. Japanese pilots used the tactic of Kamikaze (suicidal) dive-bombing attacks on enemy warships in 1944 and 1945. Also, the aft deck contained two racks on each side of the ship with 16 LCVPs. This included the battalions’ vehicles stored in holds 2 and 4. Never did know who he was. Cannon was able to report the job already done. The carrier "Ticonderoga," off Formosa, sustains a near miss from another Kamikaze. “I told the Coxswain he should wait until the LSTs got through because the Japanese loved to fire mortars at them,” Wells remembered. The kamikazes were not through, however, as demonstrated in April during the Okinawa invasion. This was climaxed in May 1942 with the fall of the Philippine Islands. The ship rushed one officer and 25 seamen ashore as a beach working party to assist in unloading the incoming boats. But one dives straight into the "Ticonderoga." Her last orders assigned her to Operation Magic Carpet, transporting American veterans home.The service of the USS DuPage was continuous and honorable throughout the war, but one particular incident stands out. 1845—change course to 340T, 6 knots, 30 rpm. I grabbed him and helped him to the rail. Neilson had just stepped up to the deck above the control room and was standing behind the 5-inch gun, leaning on the bulkhead just below the Quad 40mm gun tubs, when the Japanese suicide plane hit the DuPage. Flag images indicative of â¦ The superiority of the suicide attacks was manifest. Just then we got hit by water from the fire hose and pushed back against the bulkhead. “The quad-40 had a crew of four, two loaders, gunner and trainer. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW The Wayne crew scrambled to throw life preservers to the swimming sailors as the ship steamed by, since the transports in the convoy could not stop. Just the anticipation of kamikaze attacks drove some American sailors insane. kamikaze attacks, and since the role of the Japanese Naval Air Arm is, in general, better documented thaa that of the Army, the focus in this study is on Japanese Naval Air activities. His â¦ Off Japan proper, the USS "Nevada" and her escorts fight off attacks by Kamikaze suicide planes. The fast attack transports carried a crew of 50 officers and 600 seamen. This threat was the suicide boat, or Shinyo. Such situations occurred in both the Axis and Allied air forces. Masafumi Arima Invented The Kamikaze Strategy. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 Loading elements of the 43rd Infantry Division at Aitape, New Guinea, were the attack transport USS, (APA 41) and her sister ships [including USS. Kamikaze attacks were more accurate than conventional attacksâ¦ The port wing of the navigation bridge was demolished, numbers 2 and 4 davits were demolished, and all LCVPs cradled in these davits wrecked. The troops came from widely dispersed staging areas—Bougainville, New Britain, Hollandia, Aitape, Sansapor, and the farthest away, New Caledonia. At Okinawa they inflicted the greatest losses ever suffered by the U.S. Navy in a single battle, killing almost 5,000 men. View the list of all donors. Two escort carriers, two heavy cruisers, two destroyers, a destroyer escort, and several other ships were damaged by kamikaze attacks. On February 14, all of us were punished because they suspected that we ate at â¦ The Zeke pulled up at the last moment to correct the dive and the airplane hit the center of the flight deck. The Allies had to invade and secure the small island of Mindoro before the main invasion could go forward, because two airfields there could support Japanese attacks on the invasion fleet. We came out of the circle, line abreast going in. The American commanders were in a quandary as to where the attacks were originating. He was killed instantly. The USS Intrepid being struck by a kamikaze off Luzon, Philippines, November 25, 1944. List of Allied vessels struck by Japanese special attack weapons. St Lo attacked by Lt. Sekiâs kamikaze attack, Oct. 25, 1944 . By January 5 the entire 7th Amphibious Force carrying I Army Corps, followed by the 3rd Amphibious Force carrying XIV Army Corps, was moving out of Leyte Gulf into Surigao Strait. A Japanese plane plunging downwards during a Kamikaze attack . At Okinawa, kamikaze attacks focused at first on Allied destroyers on picket duty, and W.P. The "USS Nevada," despite an escort and efforts to fight off a Kamikaze attack, sustained such a hit in early 1945 off the coast of Japan. The intense antiaircraft fire caused one aircraft to veer off. Australian and U.S. naval forces suffered 1,230 men killed and 1,800 wounded by the kamikazes during the Philippine operation. The leading elements of the task force were bombed, and six kamikazes jumped the force, damaging an oiler and minesweeper. The mighty invasion armada for the main thrust at Luzon in the Philippine Islands was being assembled on December 28, 1944. The kamikazes—Japanese suicide planes piloted by fliers bent on sacrificing themselves by diving their aircraft into American naval vessels—soon found the strung-out convoy. “I saw the ships on either side of the DuPage shooting with their guns aimed just above the water,” remembered Neilson. The next morning two boatloads of medical officers and pharmacists came aboard from the USS Wayne and USS Fuller. Far to the rear, the amphibious assault forces were having problems with Japanese aircraft and submarines. Later, three more dead and 40 wounded were taken from an LSM. The coxswain was the pilot while the other crewmen manned the two .30-caliber machine guns. The USS DuPage: Braving Kamikazes From Air And Sea, The mighty invasion armada for the main thrust at Luzon in the Philippine Islands was being assembled on December 28, 1944. Neilson could not remember what happened to the 5-inch gun crew, but saw the gun lift up and off its stand when the plane hit. Smoke envelops the ship. (Source: Smithsonian Channel) As the suicidal pilots reached their target, they began an attack that would supersede any air raid in history. Suddenly I was lifted off my feet and slammed into the bulkhead, knocking me out. All the wounded were ordered to the infirmary, and a crew count commenced. The ship then sent out a voice radio message requesting all ships astern to be on the lookout for men blown overboard. This boat was manned by a crew of five and coordinated all movements of the LCVPs. Over the course of two days, over 350 enemy planes imposed absolute â¦ The basic design for the DuPage was a five-hatch cargo ship powered by an 8,500-horsepower steam turbine that could move it up to a speed of 16.5 knots. A minesweeper was sunk; two battleships, two heavy cruisers, and other smaller vessels were damaged. Attacking singly or in groups of four or more, the Kamikazes pressed their suicide runs, and the tiny ships worked in mutual support as best they could. In accomplishing this, the Japanese lost 600 aircraft, with at least one-third of this number being kamikazes. Captain at the conn. 1841—secured from general quarters, set condition III. Wauchape was in command of the DuPage with Lt. Cmdr. Each rack had two davits to attach and lower the boats to the water. Wells and the gun crews in the aft section helped contain the fires and throw all explosive material overboard. Standard IJN and IJA aircraft. The second plane dived to just above the ocean surface, causing the ship’s lookouts to lose sight of it until it was almost on the DuPage, dead ahead at 200 yards. In that bloody struggle, damage to U.S. Navy vessels would far surpass that sustained at Luzon. A kamikaze attack on a US warship during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 1944 The Kamikazes were the suicide attacks conducted by the Empire of Japan against the Allied Forces during World War II. “I got my pants and a skivvy shirt on and ran for the gun. The Kamikaze (ç¥é¢¨), "Divine" or "spirit wind", officially Tokubetsu KÅgekitai (ç¹å¥æ»æé "Special Attack Unit"), abbreviated as TokkÅ Tai (ç¹æ»é, used as a verb as TokkÅ (ç¹æ» "special attack") were suicide air attacks from the Empire of Japan late in World War II. Cannon rushed his forward unit to the area and saw a 500-pound bomb in the midst of a sea of flames. The captain then started to assess the damage and determine casualties. Several torpedoes were fired at the convoy to no effect. Wells and his gun crew immediately started throwing the 5-inch ammunition overboard. We were right in between two LSTs when a mortar shell exploded right in front of the boat. The first official kamikazeplane had hit its target on Oct. 25, 1944, in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, but the idea had been building in Japan for even longer. At 7:02 pm, general quarters was sounded as two Japanese twin-engine bombers were sighted.“I had just gotten cleaned up when general quarters sounded,” said Wells. Cannon headed for the main deck to take charge of the firefighting.“From the bridge to the aft end of the ship was a mass of flames,” Cannon said. Two landing craft, LCI(G)-365 and LCI(M)-974, were sunk on January 10 by suicide boats.January 10 found the infantry units up to eight miles inland, moving forward against very little resistance. Kamikaze attacks sank 34 ships and damaged hundreds of others during the war. Yukio Seki. In the middle of troop loading, a Japanese fighter plane appeared, and the ship opened fire with all guns to drive it away.Wells was a crewman on one of the LCVPs. The mighty invasion armada for the main thrust at Luzon in the Philippine Islands was being assembled on December 28, 1944. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. Japanese kamikaze attacks against U.S. aircraft carriers and ships in the Pacific during WWII. The APA had many purposes, but the main one was to load troops and equipment, transport them to an invasion area, and put them ashore.A memorable description of the attack transport was given by author Sidney Carrol in a 1940’s edition of Coronet Magazine. All Japanese aircraft were driven away from the invasion armada during S-day. 1915—twin engine bomber sighted, heading dead on for the USS DuPage, screening destroyer escort USS Cavalier and USS Fayette opened fire on plane.”. In command of the fire support groups was Vice Adm. Jesse B. Oldendorf, and Vice Adm. Daniel E. Barby was over the transport groups. Admiral Ohnishi was convinced that further employment of these inhuman tactics was â¦ They approached low, out of the evening sun, and would execute radical maneuvers to confuse the ships’ defenders.On January 9, S-day, the transport division continued to steam into Lingayen Gulf during the early morning hours. Mindoro was taken by mid-December and the airfields converted for Army Air Force use. Gun tubs 16 and 18 were wrecked, decks along the port side were holed and bulkheads badly warped. A few well orgainized strikes of say twenty Thunderbolt like fighters flown by trained Kamikazes and benefiting from trained escorts and reconassiance would would have been â¦ In the dark nothing could be seen, and the Shinyo rammed the port side of the ship. The American commanders were in a quandary as to where the attacks were originating. It should be recognized, however, that approximately half of all kamikaze attacks were condJucted by Japanese Army Air Forces. The kamikazes—Japanese suicide planes piloted by fliers bent on sacrificing themselves by diving their aircraft into American naval vessels—soon found the strung-out convoy. At 6:30 pm, the DuPage weighed anchor and moved to the outer transport area. Forward, the heavy equipment, trucks, jeeps, and howitzers were on lower decks 3 and 4.The trip lasted 11 days and proceeded through the Surigao Strait, Mindanao Sea, Sulu Sea, Mindoro Strait, South China Sea, and into Lingayen Gulf. The DuPage continued her service of moving troops and supplies and supporting invasions until the end of the war. In other words, kamikaze attacks actually cost the Japanese fewer lives to achieve a given number of hits than conventional attack. As they hit the beach, one crewman would trip the ramp at the front of the LCVP to let the troops off. In addition to the quad-40 stations, there were 20mm gun tubs, dual 50-caliber machine guns, and a 5-inch cannon. In a sense, there had even been a kamikaze attacâ¦ The LCVP had a crew of three. Kamikaze Photos & Casualty List: and Kamikaze Attack Photos USS DuPage (APA-41) Casualty List. We were lifted about five feet out of the water and slammed back down. I heard one 500-pound bomb go off as the plane careened down the ship’s side.”At 7:15 pm, the left wing of the plane hung on one of the ship’s antimine Paravene boom cables and swung into the left side of the navigation bridge. The first boat lowered and the last to be retrieved was the LCC (Landing Craft, Command). They had explosives strapped around their waists to detonate against the side of the ship.”. “I got up from my seat to see what he was hollering about. Seaman 1st Class Rudolph Daniel Wells’ battle station was a 40mm antiaircraft gun. 1902—sounded general quarters, enemy planes in the vicinity. On or After Date of Successful Attack by Organized Special Attack Squadron - Vice Admiral Takijiro Ohnishi formed the first kamikaze special attack squadron in the early morning of October 20, 1944 (Inoguchi 1958, 13), but the first successful suicide attacks by special attack squadrons did not take place until October 25, â¦ “Once we got loaded with troops the assault LCVPs would move away from the ship and form up in a large circle. “A large chunk of the airplane had sliced through the area and took his head off. Pictures made simultaneously show the same attack viewed from the carrier itself. The new attacks were different in that the pilots were more skilled, the aircraft larger and more heavily armored. Her crew will always remember January 10, 1945, as the day of the kamikaze. He described the activity getting ready to head for the beach. The forces of General MacArthur had driven up the north coast of New Guinea all the way to Morotai Island, lying just south of the Philippines. MacArthur developed a three-phase plan for recapture of the Philippines: First, seize the island of Leyte to be used as a marshaling area and supply base; second, invade and clear the Japanese from the main island of Luzon; and third, occupy the bypassed islands at a later date. For the DuPage this invasion would produce a traumatic event that the ship’s crew had witnessed but never experienced. The gunner ran the elevation transverse and trigger, the trainer ran the azimuth transverse.”The attack transport had a formidable array of antiaircraft weapons. “An APA is a tenement, a moving van, a freight car, a garage, a fighting ship, a hospital, an ambulance and a hearse.” In a few short days the DuPage would learn that one more item could be added to the list: target of the divine wind, better known as the kamikaze. This force was followed by Task Group 77.2, the bombardment and fire support vessels accompanied by 12 escort carriers and their screening destroyers and destroyer escorts. This hull configuration was used for escort carriers and troop transports (AP) in addition to attack transports (APA). “There had been reports of Japanese swimmers trying to reach the ships under the boxes. With the sea lanes protected, the Luzon invasion moved forward. The kamikazes had their most successful day on October 24, 1944, when 378 kamikazes managed to sink 16 Allied warships off Okinawa.