Unlike potatoes, you don’t have to worry about them greening up and poisoning you. Here’s how Rachel prepares yams and adds them to stew: There’s also a yam dessert made from the purple ube yam (a variant of Dioscorea alata) I hope to make soon. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Sweet potatoes are in the Ipomoea family, whereas yams are in the completely different Dioscorea family. Since chickens will eat just about anything, I need to make sure I don’t plant anything within their reach will make them sick. I also really like them shredded with a cheese grater and fried into hashbrowns – you just have to be careful, though, as some varieties are high in oxalic acid and can scratch your throat. The shiny green heart shaped leaves hang on vines that twine rapidly to 20'. It would almost seem to be a composite. The wild Dioscorea bulbifera bulbils in Florida are considered poisonous. Check out my video on propagating yams here: Yams need something to climb – they’re vigorous vines and will happily shoot to the top of a tree if given half a chance. @2017 - PenciDesign. PlantLinks to other web pages about Dioscorea polystachya I welcome comments about my web pages; feel free to use the form below to leave feedback about this particular page. Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Yams don’t root all that easily out of the vine and they always want to go up, up, up. Caspar May 10, 2019 - 8:37 pm. It would probably grow to USDA zone 8. Method of preparation: Baked, fried, stewed Got a tiny little tuber. Anyway … It is moderately threatening native plant communities. Imp. You’re welcome. I wish I could – I now live in Central America. If I am not mistaken your friend, Grower Jim, sells a Bulbifera variety that looks like a space rock that is supposedly edible. The tubers grow as long as three feet and may be left in the ground for several seasons without losing quality. upon a little searching that type puts out a cocktail of chemicals in the tubers…maybe if that’s what you want…they use it in china a lot..but they are telling people to just use it like a potato! Also, if it’s really wet, the roots will rot even in the tropics. If you watch the folks on YouTube or read articles by folks in the New Orleans area they make it look as simple as dropping them on the ground, walking away and then coming back in a few months to a monstrosity of a vine laden with chayotes. Since its introduction into North America, it has spread throughout the eastern United States. I need to find out what the deal is. Dioscorea polystachya (cinnamon vine, Chinese yam): This white fleshed edible tuber of good flavor has a hardiness rating of Zones 5 to 10, and will remain alive in the ground overwinter, sending up handsome tall twining shoots in the spring. These vine borers take out summer squash here almost at a 100% rate. form a strategic partnership called N.C. The edible tubers are cultivated largely in Asia and sometimes used in alternative medicine. Way easier, though not as good in salsa. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. I have probably lost 20 or so vines in 2 years. They are very good in soups and stews and can also be boiled and used like mashed potatoes. I cook yams just like white potatoes, though I find they cook faster and brown up nicer than potatoes will. How To Grow Tobacco and Why You Should... Five Easy To ID Florida Edible Wild Mushrooms. The arrangement is variable and may be alternately or oppositely arranged or borne in whorls. Common Names. Give it a try and see. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. D. oppositifolia is called by some websites D. batata. Plant … Links . “contains many chemical components, such as mannan, allantoin, saponins, dopamine, batatasine, phytic acid, amino acids, glucoprotein, choline, ergosterol, campesterol and so on” Axillary clusters of small, white fragrant flowers with cinnamon fragrance in mid to late summer. I am looking on the web and cannot find much information much less which USDA zone these will live in. What’s been claimed to be this particular form has always been some other mislabeled tuber. There are the “name” yams you get from the ethnic markets (and often from Publix supermarkets, if you have those in your area), then there are the “water yams,” also known as “winged yams” or, most properly Dioscorea alata, andÂ there are also edible forms of Dioscorea bulbiferaÂ (the dreaded “air potato”) that make airborne roots you can eat, and, of course, there’s the cold-hardy Chinese yam of “yamberry” fame, then…. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast growing twining vine that has escaped from cultivation, and has the ability to rapidly invade pristine habitats, especially riparian corridors. It is a spooky sight seeing a fields of very high rickety looking bamboo poles to support the yam vines, cemetery like look. Chinese Yam was introduced here as early as the 19th century for culinary and cultural uses and is now considered an invasive plant species in several states. Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou.Moscow 10(7):158. Also, instead of boiling, I steam them. If you have bulbils or minisetts available, plant them in fall, winter or early spring. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. hi David, my name is fire I am a Jamaican and I love watching your videos! Part Used:Â Roots, bulbils on some species Dioscorea batatas R. Decr. alata Asia Throughout Yes Square stem, twines to the right Zanzibar yam Dioscorea. Another method I haven’t read much about is starting yams from cuttings. 1. Send photos! will be used when information applies to the entire genus. Would I do better to start them in a pot and put them underneath a tree to climb up or just put them in the ground under the tree? It actually tasted pretty good though. Thanks in advance for your time and consideration. David, if I have a ton of Alata bulbils I collected in the fall, how should I store them till spring? Colder than that, though, I would grow Dioscorea polystachya. Thanks again. Thesis, Southern Illinois University, 104pp. Thanks for stopping by. Second, I’d like to ask, “Would you be willing to part with a few aerial tubers of your purple ube Dioscorea alata?” I’ve been searching local stores and nurseries for the “real deal” for quite some time, now. Some do not. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Ebay is a good source for various yams. I am working in Papua New Guinea. Folks spend all their time trying to learn how to grow tomatoes; instead, they should give up and learn how to grow yams! M.S. Do you happen to recognize this yam and can you tell me if it will grow and survive in USDA zone 8b? The skin’s all wrong. I have had the exact same problem with chayote – I’m not sure what is going on with them. Do you if this yam forms bulbils? bulbifera.) I think more research on those would be valuable. I would also hunt for them in oriental markets. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. I am considering buying some more “purple yam” off of Ebay and trying it again but it is expensive on Ebay. I don’t know if give youÂ as big of a harvestÂ the first year if you start them from cuttings, but I do know they’ll root. (November), or should I just leave them In the house till spring. • CT, MA, VT. Designed and Developed by PenciDesign. I bought a small chunk from the Asian market and it ended up sprouting up a super long purple vine. (Though if you do buy one of my books, you’ll be my friend forever. I am just confused and this is my 3rd trial. You are saying that the Bulbifera variety has both edible and non-edible varieties? D. polystachya is the one growing in North America. Growing yams is easy and the roots taste great. If you store them under moist conditions, they’ll start growing roots. Dioscorea. Would like to hear your 2 cents on this. Do you have an idea why this may not be growing or does it mean that the yam seed is bad? David The Good May 11, 2019 - … Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Okay…thanks David. I bought a generically named nyame blanco (ny being my phonetic longhand for the Spanish “N with a ~ over it,” which I can’t type on my phone)–white yam– at a Puerto Rican market in Chicago and gave it to my parents in the FL panhandle. !, love what you’re doing keep up the good job!, PS how can I get some of that buibell from you so I could plant in my garden here in Cleveland I live in Ohio but I am trying to do my garden in raise up beds and also in hoop houses My email is email@example.com could you tell me how I could get some of that buibell to grow some yams thank you David ! The Top 5 Best Garden Hoes How To Grow Yams Growing Arrowroot Get Rid of Squirrels Florida native pawpaws: an interview with Terri […]. The oriental market is not carrying these right now. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Learn how to grow yams and EAT LIKE A KING! The below-ground root really seems to do a lot of its growing into the fall as well, preparing for the winter ahead. Features: Dioscorea polystachya is from the genus Dioscorea that consists of over 600 species of flowering plants. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Come down here and loot in the next week or so. It’s really inspiring to witness!! Dioscorea polystachya. I figured it would be about time for the vines to appear since the Eddoes are sprouting up all along the fence lines where I also planted the “purple yam”. Well needless to say curiosity got the best of me: I pulled on one of the dormant vines and it easily snapped off at the ground. sansibarensis Africa Collier and Miami-Dade counties, rare Yes Leaf margins 3-5 lobed, leaf apex caudate (extending in a slender tail-like appendage) Chinese yam Dioscorea polystachya India Alachua Co., rare Yes Leaf margins 3 lobed, apex acute It is a perennial herbaceous vine with a thick and spindle-shaped or cylindrical underground tuber. So far, I only have a little success growing them in pot. Yams have a growing season and a dormant season. Good to diversify the crops. In some ways Yam C (Dioscorea polystachya) resembles both Yam A and Yam B (Dioscorea alata, D. The yamsÂ I grew in great garden soil with lots of compost and water made big roots in their first year; the ones I grow without any care whatsoever generally took two years to makeÂ big roots. Thanks David…now that you have confessed with struggling with chayotes I do not feel as bad. -DTG. One item that I am struggling with though are the chayotes or mirlitons as the Cajuns would call them. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09540105.2019.1674786, https://www.etsy.com/listing/548940446/10-rarely-produced-seeds-mountain-yam?ref=yr_purchases, oh and I think they are lying about where they are shipping from and it’s coming from china….shame shame, adding to the above…oh and they have a listing on ebay saying they are selling purple yam seeds…the listing says this is what your plants will look like. I purchased 1 of these last year but it never sprouted. Govaerts, R. et al. That’s the most common “air potato.” They have a cousin that grows in the same region, Dioscorea alata, which has edible bulbils, though they’re usually too small to bother with. Chinese yam, cinnamon vine Synonyms. I’m letting them sprout, I’m pretty sure I’ll be able to tell the difference once I see the leaves. Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea decaisneana, Dioscorea opposita Conclusions by Zone. They are different from the wild forms growing around Florida. While looking at Ebay for Dioscorea Alata I ran across Dioscorea Trifida, the cush-cush yam. Next is is an exotic invasive … It was surprising how easily yam cuttings rooted. Some species are grown JUST for their bulbils, such as the rare edible forms of Dioscorea bulbifera: Those can be cooked and consumed like potatoes and the main root stays in the ground, sending up vines and new harvests of aerial roots year after year. Skin irritation from handling the uncooked tubers; irritation and burning of the mouth, lips, tongue and throat. Naturalistes Moscou 7: 158 1837 . References  Primary references . Most people confuse yams with sweet potatoes but they are not the same crop at all. The Marvels of the Rainforest: Cecropia, Insects and... Q & A on Growing True Yams and Edible Air Potatoes | The Survival Gardener, How To Find Rare Edible Plants | The Survival Gardener, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09540105.2019.1674786, A Look at the Fruit Trees I Planted Six Years Ago in Georgia. I would love to have more information about her or her family, but I haven’t had any luck.). Waste places, compost heaps, fields. Exposure: Full sun/part shade (That’s an old newspaper photo I own of St. Pete resident Helen Parkey back in the 70s. #inpursuitofinvasives . I had good luck rooting yam cuttings in a mist house last year. N.C. Look at these: You can bet that’s not just one year’s growth. Yams also make wonderful roots for the crockpot and really good French fries. Here’s how to tell the difference: Since yams are a perennial crop, you can simply plant them one year and then dig themÂ a year or three later when you’re hungry. Nutrition:Â LowÂ – mostly just carbohydrates Plant database entry for Chinese Yam (Dioscorea polystachya) with 10 images, one comment, and 17 data details. Let’s start first with how to propagate yams. Taste: Very good Would it be able to grow properly in the zone I live in? Any response, especially if it’s in the affirmative, would be greatly appreciated! If you don’t have bulbils, you need to make “minisetts.” All that requires is a good yam root, a knife, and perhaps some ashes to ward off potential soil pests. Hi David, I live in zone 4b of the US and was wondering if it would be possible to grow Chinese yam. It is interesting to see you grow yam in this part of the world. ... this species may be considered for use under specific management practices that have been approved by the IFAS Invasive Plant Working Group. David: I live in coastal Mobile, AL, zone 8b and I planted “purple yam” last year that I purchased at a local oriental food market. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae ). This is good when you have a 40lb monster to consume. Common Name: Chinese yam, cinnamon vine, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Dioscorea batatas Family Name: Yam (Dioscoreaceae) NJ Status: Emerging Stage 0 – Absent or very rare. The roots on those are much better. Thanks. Fixing the roof is more important, but my mom wrote to ask me if it will tolerate water saturated soil or if they need to just dig it up and eat it. Dioscorea polystachya is native to China and wasoriginally introduced into North America as an ornamental vine, as food, and for medicinal purposes. be careful buying seeds for yams. I have seen chickens around them all the time without issue. I just ordered some dioscorea alata off eBay and will put them in the ground when they get here. Many yam species have aerial “bulbils” (roots) that you can plant for the next year’s harvest. Hi David, I am trying to find out if the LEAVES of the purple yam Dioscorea Alata are toxic. By Mangy White Bushman. I found it growing right near a huge patch of non-edible Dioscorea bulbifera and identified it by its leaves and dangling bulbils. Warty round bulbils grow in the leaf axis from which new plants are formed. Dioscorea polystachya Turez. characteristics of Dioscorea oppositifolia, an invasive plant species in southern Illinois. It now ranges from Vermont south to … 8b is pretty cold, but it may overwinter with heavy mulch. Turczaninow, N.S., 1837. Type: Vining perennial Soc. Plant type: An ornamental and perennial vine that produces edible tubers and bulbils. The record derives from WCSP which reports it as an accepted name (record 240732 ) with original publication details: Bull. Probably not easily, but you might be able to keep it alive by planting right up against the south-facing wall of your house and mulching it over the winter. Most wild strains will mess you up and there’s no safe way to figure out which, if any, you can eat. The plant is not self-fertile. there is someone selling seeds for yams on etsy saying they are “mountain yams” they listed it as Dioscorea hamiltonii. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at … It also looks like cinnamon vines will be making it as a perennial. Now I’m going toÂ cover growing yams and propagation here, so you, the cheapskate internet reader, can benefit from my research without buying myÂ book. Reply. I find it incredible that they’re almost NEVER covered in Florida gardening books. 1. SYNONYMS: for Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Another item that is doing well are the Eddoes along one of my filtered shaded fence rows. Go figure…if you come across some sort of chayote growing miracle process then please keep me informed and I will be sure to do the same. Those are bitter and poisonous. […] 2 Blocks, 17 Edibles Purple Ube Yams How To Protect Moringa Trees From Frost –… How To Grow Yams The Edible Blue Mushroom: Lactarius Indigo How Long Does it Take An Avocado To… Velvet […]. I have a name yam which I am going plant using the miniset method you showed. I donât want them to dry up, or rot! There are edible varieties of D. bulbifera in cultivation, of which Grower Jim has some, and so do I. I had told you earlier in the year in a post above that I thought the cold snap had killed them off. BOB. Name:Â Yams, Chinese yams, ube, name, etc. Come on, folks! Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Five plants that look like Marijuana: a helpful... How To Identify an Edible Bolete Mushroom. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Published on the internet. I still have about 100lbs left on the back porch. E. Chinese yam. Thanks!! Medicinal: Some species How To Protect Moringa Trees From Frost –... Why You Should Keep Mango Trees Small and... Why Becoming a Master Gardener Isn’t Worth It, A DIY Smoked Hot Homemade Pepper Sauce Recipe, More Victims of the Satanic Grazon Herbicide, Survival Plant Profile: Cassava – King of Staples, The Edible Blue Mushroom: Lactarius Indigo, Velvet Beans: A Natural Testosterone Booster. My first impression of this plant was, “what is this flying mini potato?That made it somewhat easy to identify as an air potato, … Dense shading and sometimes eventual mortality of low-growing herbaceous vegetation, shrubs, and I cover yams in Totally Crazy Easy Florida Gardening with great enthusiasm – and they also get a good mentionÂ in Grow or Die: The Good Guide to Survival Gardening. You can also subscribe without commenting. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. The air potato might be a type of wild yam, but that doesn’t mean you can eat the tubers of the wild, uncultivated plant. Wash them well, then wear gloves as you peel them. Should I just plant them now? Thanks. Origin and Distribution Cut your yam root into chunks about the size of a peach, dip them in ashes, then plant them. These vines grow two types of edible tubers, small aerial tubers grow where the leaves attach to the stem and a larger tap-root type tuber grows at the base of the plant. Now that I’ve told you how to grow yams, hunt down some roots or bulbils and get planting! If it can grow in the cold climate that will be great. Yes – I’ve grown it before. I’m sorry it rotted out – the cold was probably too much for it. Got a tiny little tuber. That method of cultivation sounds amazing. Dascorea alata is native to wider part of Africa where it is taking as meal every day. Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamon Vine, Chinese Yam. Chinese Yam is a Vine. Once you know how to grow yams, you’ll be eating ’em all the time. Dioscorea polystachya Turez. The name Dioscorea oppositifolia L. has been used for this species, but that name correctly refers to a plant that is native to India and not found in New England (Raz 2002). How widely do you space yams and malanga? I’ve been eating yamsÂ daily since we harvested 2015’s crop. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae ). Here’s my video on that really cool species: Yams don’t need a care or watering to stay alive, though taking care of them will raise your yields and reduce the time needed until harvest. I planted about a half-dozen in Florida one year and was lucky enough to get two survivors. I’ve grown yams on fences, on trellises, on an unused clothesline and even on a pollarded sweetgum tree I used as a living trellis. they used the same picture for the chinese yams as for the purple yams lol 56 sold….sad. I bought some “purple sweet potatoes” at the farmers market last weekend that I think might actually be ube. Tempest in a Teapot Meets Jack Broccoli; Plus, Rain! Apparently they are a little more resilient than I thought…once it stayed in the mid 90s around here they popped up and started climbing. What is your take on this? Established populations of Chinese yam have not been found in Canada. I usually dig yams when they’re two years old, though I got some pretty big 1-year yams this year (again, in my nicely tended garden). YBIC. Dioscorea batatas is a PERENNIAL growing to 3 m (9ft) by 1.5 m (5ft). As the growing season progresses, they start making their bulbils (if they’re a yam that does that) which mature in the fall. Invasive.org is a joint project of University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA Forest Service, USDA Identification Technology Program, and USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. It is a perennial climbing vine, native to China and East Asia. Colder than that, though, I would grow Dioscorea polystachya. Check this out: I don’t know what that tastes like but I want to eat it. Cold-hardy: No, though roots live through freezes Vines are either woody or herbaceous plants that climb or sprawl. …well, let’s just say there are a LOT of yams. Share. Excellent! Sounds like the cold got to it. Gregg – please take photos and send them so I can post! But, I’d be willing to buy them from you and pay for postage and packing materials, as well!! Chinese Yam (Dioscorea polystachya) is a beautiful perennial vine with shiny heart shaped leaves and strongly cinnamon scented flowers. If you can find yams to grow, grow them! It actually tasted pretty good though. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3816 plants and 23,855 images. I pulled this one from beneath a tree in some crummy sand and clay in Summerfield, Florida when I was out wild foraging: Speaking of wild foraging, the invasiveÂ Dioscorea bulbiferaÂ or “air potato” can be found all over the place but it’s not safe to eat. Good Morning David: Please clear something up for me. A combination of cold and rain likely did it in. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Latin Name:Â Dioscorea spp. Dioscorea polystachya NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Soc. Kansas Native Plants • Plant Guide Guide to Plants of Kansas, native & alien. Landscaping Plant Identification Guide Plant Fiber Paper. I know it lives in 9. I am going to order another bulbil from Jim around the winter holidays and hopefully have better success this year. Where I live in Florida, they grow vigorously through spring and summer and into the fall,Â die back and eventually freeze down in the winter. Ease of growing:Â Very easy D. bulbifera, though, unless it’s a cultivated variety known to be non-poisonous, is not safe to harvest and eat. Well, I foolishly ignored your advice and tried to pull off D. Alata in my zone 6 Illinois garden. The ubes usually are rougher, with almost an elephant skin type of look to them. – they can climb when they emerge. Storability:Â Excellent in ground, good on the counter ), First of all, you need to figure out what type of yams you’re going to grow. My edible white and purple yams are doing well…at least the vines are growing like crazy. Yeah, I don’t get it either. Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. I was wondering whether “layering” techniques can be applied to the yam vine to increase root tuber, such as you would with a sprawling sweet potato vine? Hi, Cinnamon vine is another commonly used name for Dioscorea polystachya. Try mulching heavily when you try again. First of all, Thank You for posting about one of the things you’re obviously so very passionate about! More on the amazing edible Dioscorea bulbifera here: Another yam, the cold-tolerant Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) can be grown for both its large underground roots and its tiny little edible bulbils. They love yams there too! The Hidden Danger of Straw Bale Gardening No... Grow or Die: The Good Guide to Survival Gardening, Wild Edible Chinese Yams in North Carolina. Excellent article. I planted some last year and all of them died. It is in flower from September to October. I’ll try to cover the basics on how to grow yams, then get into some details on individual species. The record derives from WCSP (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name (record 240732 ) with original publication details: Bull. I haven’t tried freezing them – thanks for the tip. I would not worry a bit. two years ago I tried propagating but made the mistake of starting them in January which was too cold. Thanks for the good job. Once they take, they grow great for me and live for years. Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya or Dioscorea batatas) is an ornamental vine that is native to Asia. Take care down in the tropics my Green Thumbed Friend. The elongated tuber grows 2-3 feet long and can be eaten raw or cooked. Yes, that is correct. Availability: Low. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. This is a fast growing deciduous vine with nice heart-shaped leaves that makes fairly immense tubers which are eaten in Asia. The Chinese Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is a perennial vine with fragrant, cinnamon scented flowers and tubers that over-winter to be harvested at any time. Propagation: Roots, bulbils, cuttings And, my luck hasn’t been so great. It’s not quite that simple. How can you NOT love roots that look like this?! I leave in Florida and have been trying to grow yam for a while. Yams are only rarely grown from seeds except for breeding purposes – and if you live in the US, you’re unlikely to have a long enough warm season or proper light cycles for them to even bloom. Prune to the ground in spring. It usually lasts a few minutes. Maybe interview a chayote farmer. I plant mine just under the surface of the soil near something – anything! Dioscorea polystachya in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Could Dioscorea Alata be grown with protection in colder climates? This is myÂ top survival root for tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea spp. Last year, I had a little success and enjoyed some. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Naturalistes Moscou 7: 158 1837 . Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. I would like to plant them so the vines can grow up the chain link fencing around my chicken yard. If this at all interests you, would you please email me? Some of them do but many do not. I am really looking forward to your insight on this one. I have started them via cuttings, but that doesn’t help the root development. !, seen you harvest purple yam and yams makes me feel as though I was back home in Jamaica! The normal method of propagation is via bulbils for the varieties that produce bulbils, and via divided roots for those that do not.